The Putin Interviews
by Oliver Stone (

Sunday, August 12, 2018

A MUST -- READ AND SHARE --The Self-Imposed Impotence of the Russian and Chinese Governments

The Self-Imposed Impotence of the Russian and Chinese Governments

The Self-Imposed Impotence of the Russian and Chinese Governments
Paul Craig Roberts
The Russian and Chinese governments are puzzling. They hold all the cards in the sanction wars and sit there with no wits whatsoever as to how to play them.
The Russians won’t get any help from the Western media which obscures the issue by stressing that the Russian government doesn’t want to deprive its citizens of consumer goods from the West, which is precisely what Washington’s sanctions intend to do.
The Russian and Chinese governments are in Washington’s hands because Russia and China, thinking that capitalism had won, quickly adopted American neoliberal economics, which is a propaganda device that serves only American interests.
For years NASA has been unable to function without Russian rocket engines. Despite all the sanctions, insults, military provocations, the Russian government still sends NASA the engines. Why? Because the Russian economists tell the government that foreign exchange is essential to Russia’s development.

Saturday, August 11, 2018

American Pravda: Jews and Nazis

American Pravda: Jews and Nazis
American Pravda: Jews and Nazis
Ron Unz
This documented history of the close relationship between Zionists and Nazi Germany will blow your mind. The author of this article is a Jew, so don’t make a fool of yourself by screaming “anti-semite.”

American Pravda: Jews and Nazis
RON UNZ • AUGUST 6, 2018
 • 6,800 WORDS • 349 COMMENTS • REPLY
Around 35 years ago, I was sitting in my college dorm-room closely reading the New York Times as I did each and every morning when I noticed an astonishing article about the controversial new Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Shamir.
Back in those long-gone days, the Gray Lady was strictly a black-and-white print publication, lacking the large color photographs of rap stars and long stories about dieting techniques that fill so much of today’s news coverage, and it also seemed to have a far harder edge in its Middle East reporting. A year or so earlier, Shamir’s predecessor Menacham Begin had allowed his Defense Minister Ariel Sharon to talk him into invading Lebanon and besieging Beirut, and the subsequent massacre of Palestinian women and children in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps had outraged the world and angered America’s government. This eventually led to Begin’s resignation, with Shamir, his Foreign Minister, taking his place.
Prior to his surprising 1977 election victory, Begin had spent decades in the political wilderness as an unacceptable right-winger, and Shamir had an even more extreme background, with the American mainstream media freely reporting his long involvement in all sorts of high-profile assassinations and terrorist attacks during the 1940s, painting him as a very bad man indeed.
Given Shamir’s notorious activities, few revelations would have shocked me, but this one did. Apparently, during the late 1930s, Shamir and his small Zionist faction had become great admirers of the Italian Fascists and German Nazis, and after World War II broke out, they had made repeated attempts to contact Mussolini and the German leadership in 1940 and 1941, hoping to enlist in the Axis Powers as their Palestine affiliate, and undertake a campaign of attacks and espionage against the local British forces, then share in the political booty after Hitler’s inevitable triumph.
Now the Times clearly viewed Shamir in a very negative light, but it seemed extremely unlikely to me that they would have published such a remarkable story without being absolutely sure of their facts. Among other things, there were long excerpts from the official letters sent to Mussolini ferociously denouncing the “decadent” democratic systems of Britain and France that he was opposing, and assuring Il Duce that such ridiculous political notions would have no future place in the totalitarian Jewish client state they hoped to establish under his auspices in Palestine.
As it happens, both Germany and Italy were preoccupied with larger geopolitical issues at the time, and given the small size of Shamir’s Zionist faction, not much seems to have ever come of those efforts. But the idea of the sitting Prime Minister of the Jewish State having spent his early wartime years as an unrequited Nazi ally was certainly something that sticks in one’s mind, not quite conforming to the traditional narrative of that era which I had always accepted.
Most remarkably, the revelation of Shamir’s pro-Axis past seems to have had only a relatively minor impact upon his political standing within Israeli society. I would think that any American political figure found to have supported a military alliance with Nazi Germany during the Second World War would have had a very difficult time surviving the resulting political scandal, and the same would surely be true for politicians in Britain, France, or most other western nations. But although there was certainly some embarrassment in the Israeli press, especially after the shocking story reached the international headlines, apparently most Israelis took the whole matter in stride, and Shamir stayed in office for another year, then later served a second, much longer term as Prime Minister during 1986-1992. The Jews of Israel apparently regarded Nazi Germany quite differently than did most Americans, let alone most American Jews.

Around that same time, a second intriguing example of this quite different Israeli perspective towards the Nazis also came to my attention. In 1983, Amoz Oz, often described as Israel’s greatest novelist, had published In the Land of Israel to glowing reviews. This book was a collection of lengthy interviews with various representative figures in Israeli society, both moderate and extreme, as well as some coverage of the Palestinians who also lived among them.

Monday, August 6, 2018



De Hiroshima até hoje:
Quem e como nos conduzem à catástrofe


9.1 A estratégia do Império Americano do Ocidente 

Um vasto arco de tensões e conflitos estende-se da Ásia Oriental à Ásia Central, do Médio Oriente à Europa, da África à America Latina. Os «pontos quentes» ao longo deste arco intercontinental – Península Coreana, Mar da China Meridional, Afeganistão, Síria, Iraque, Irão, Ucrânia, Líbia, Venezuela e outros – têm histórias e características geopolíticas diferentes, com factores específicos sócio-económicos internos, mas, ao mesmo tempo, estão ligados por um único factor: a estratégia com a qual os Estados Unidos da América procuram manter a sua posição de superpotência dominante.

Os Estados Unidos ainda são a primeira potência económica do mundo, sobretudo graças aos capitais e aos mecanismos com que dominam o mercado financeiros  global,às multinacionais com que exploram os recursos humanos e materiais de cada continente, à alta tecnologia e às patentes relacionadas na sua posse, ao papel penetrante dos seus grupos de multimedia que influenciam as opiniões e os gostos de biliões de utentes à escala planetária.  

Basta pensar que a NYSE, a principal Bolsa de Valores do mundo (conhecida como Wall Street), com sede em Nova York, incorporou a Euronext, em 2007, criando a NYSE-Euronext e esta, por sua vez, é comprada em 2013 pela Intercontinental Exchange, um grupo americano que gere outras 10 Bolsas prestigiosas, com um valor de acções que totaliza o dobro do produto interno bruto mundial. Basta pensar que a Apple, a multinacional americana número um do mundo no sector dos produtos informáticos, tem uma rede de mais de 800 fábricas em trinta países, com mais de um milhão e meio de operários e técnicos que produzem os componentes simples, os quais são enviados a 18 instalações de montagem final, de onde saem os produtos finais para serem distribuídos pela rede de vendas a escala global. Basta pensar que, entre os 10 grupos mediáticos mais destacados do mundo, nove são americanos. O grupo Time Warner é composto por mais de 300 sociedades, entre as quais a Warner Bros que produz filmes e telefilmes difundidos em todo o mundo, a CNN, cujo noticiário é transmitido vinte e quatro horas sobre vinte e quatro, em todo o mundo, a Time Inc. e outras casas editoras que publicam mais de cem revistas internacionais. A compra da Time Warner pela AT&T, a gigantesca empresa americana dos telefones móveis/celulares e da Internet, cria um grupo multimédia de dimensões ainda mais colossais.

Saturday, August 4, 2018


Proof Emerges That Obama FBI Orchestrated the False Russiagate Plot

Proof Emerges That Obama FBI Orchestrated the False Russiagate Plot against Trump

 Resultado de imagem para pictures of judicial watch logo
AUGUST 03, 2018

Documents Reveal Steele Was Admonished in February, 2016

(Washington, DC) – Judicial Watch announced today the FBI turned over 70 pages of heavily redacted records about Christopher Steele, the former British spy, hired with Clinton campaign and Democratic National Committee funds, who authored the infamous Dossier targeting President Trump during last year’s presidential campaign.  The documents show that Steele was cut off as a “Confidential Human Source” (CHS) after he disclosed his relationship with the FBI to a third party.  The documents show at least 11 FBI payments to Steele in 2016 and document that he was admonished for unknown reasons in February, 2016.  The documents were turned over in response to Judicial Watch Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Justice for records of communications and payments between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and former British intelligence officer Christopher Steele and his private firm, Orbis Business Intelligence (Judicial Watch v. U.S. Department of Justice (No. 1:17-cv-00916)).

The documents include a “source closing communication” that states that Steele (referred to as “CHS” or Confidential Human Source) “is being closed” because:

CHS confirmed to an outside third party that CHS has a confidential relationship with the FBI. CHS was used as a source for an online article. In the article, CHS revealed CHS’ relationship with the FBI as well as information that CHS obtained and provided to FBI. On November 1, 2016, CHS confirmed all of this to the handling agent. At that time, handling agent advised CHS that the nature of the relationship between the FBI and CHS would change completely and that it was unlikely that the FBI would continue a relationship with the CHS. Additionally, handling agent advised that CHS was not to operate to obtain any intelligence whatsoever on behalf of the FBI.

The documents also show that Steele was paid repeatedly by the FBI and was “admonished” for some unknown misconduct in February, 2016.  The documents include:


Excertos do livro “Guerra Nuclear – O Dia Anterior”, de Manlio Dinucci, sobre a criação e finalidade da NATO:

Em 29 de Agosto de 1949, a União Soviética efectua a sua primeira explosão experimental de um engenho de plutónio. Agora também a URSS tem a Bomba. Começa neste ponto, a corrida aos armamentos nucleares entre as duas super potências.

Naquele mesmo ano, em 4 de Abril de 1949, é fundada a NATO, compreendendo, durante a guerra fria, dezasseis países: Estados Unidos da América, Canadá, Bélgica, República Federal da Alemanha, Grã-Bretanha, Grécia, Islândia, Itália, Luxemburgo, Noruega, Holanda, Portugal, Espanha e Turquia. Através desta aliança, os EUA mantém o seu domínio sobre os aliados europeus, usando a Europa como primeira linha no confronto, também nuclear, com o Pacto de Varsóvia. Este último, (o Pacto de Varsóvia) em 14 de Maio de 1955 (seis anos depois da NATO), compreende a União Soviética, a Bulgária, a Checoslováquia, a Polónia, a República Democrática da Alemanha, Roménia, Hungria, Albânia (de 1955 a 1968).

Enquanto se inicia o confronto nuclear entre os EUA e a URSS, a Grã Bretanha e França, ambos membros da NATO, diligenciam dotar-se de armas nucleares. A primeira a conseguir é a Grã-Bretanha: enquanto colabora no programa nuclear dos Estados Unidos, inicia em 1945 um programa próprio destinado à produção da bomba de plutónio. Embora uma lei, aprovada em Washington em 1946, lhes impeça (ao menos oficialmente) de aceder às informações sobre o desenvolvimento das armas nucleares americanas, em 3 de Outubro de 1952, consegue efectuar na Austrália, a sua primeira explosão experimental.

Isto aumenta a vantagem da NATO, que aumenta posteriormente, quando, no dia 1 de Novembro do mesmo ano, os Estados Unidos fazem explodir a sua primeira bomba H (de hidrogénio). No da 1 de Março de 1954, os EUA conduzem o teste Bravo no atol de Bikini, no Pacífico, fazendo explodir uma bomba H de 17 megaton, 1.300 vezes mais potente do que a de Hiroshima. Naquele momento, os EUA têm quase 850 armas nucleares, enquanto a URSS possui cerca de 50.

A «ofensiva de desarmamento» é  lançada pela União Soviética de Gorbacev: em 15 de Janeiro de 1986, propõe não só eliminar os mísseis soviéticos e americanos de alcance médio (o que é feito sucessivamente), mas de estabelecer um programa global, em três fases, para a proibição da armas nucleares em 2000. 

Em Washington sabem, portanto, que Gorbacev quer verdadeiramente o desarmamento, que ele quer, de facto, a eliminação completa das armas nucleares. Mas sabem também que o processo da perestroika, posto em movimento por Gorbacev em 1986, provocou uma reacção em cadeia que está não só a desagregar o Pacto de Varsóvia, mas a própria União Soviética.

A «Queda do Muro de Berlim», em 9 de Novembro de 1989, assinala o início do fim. Simultaneamente, a desagregação da URSS e a profunda crise política e económica que aflige a Rússia assinalam o fim da super potência capaz de rivalizar com a americana.

Nesta altura, o mundo está numa encruzilhada. A decisão de qual dos dois caminhos escolher e seguir está substancialmente nas mãos de Washington: de um lado está a possibilidade de iniciar um verdadeiro processo de desarmamento, começando por estabelecer, consoante as linhas da proposta de Gorbachev, um programa destinado à eliminação completa das armas nucleares, que, se lançado conjuntamente por Washington e Moscovo, poderia envolver, também, as outras potências nucleares; do outro lado, está a possibilidade de aproveitar o desaparecimento da super potência rival para aumentar a superioridade estratégica, incluindo a superioridade nuclear, dos Estados Unidos da América, que permaneceu a única super potência na cena mundial. Sem um instante de hesitação, Washington tomou o segundo caminho.

A expansão da NATO para Leste, em direcção à Rússia

Thierry Meyssan -- O crepúsculo da guerra

O crepúsculo da guerra

Se considerarmos a guerra na Síria não como um acontecimento em si, mas como a conclusão de um conflito mundial de um quarto de século, devemos interrogar-nos sobre as consequências da próxima cessação de hostilidades. A sua concretização marca a derrota de uma ideologia, a da globalização e do capitalismo financeiro. Os povos que não compreenderam isto, nomeadamente na Europa Ocidental, colocam-se a si próprios à margem do resto do mundo.
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Donald Trump e Vladimir Putin aquando da Cimeira bilateral de Helsínquia, a 16 de Julho de 2018.
As guerras mundiais não terminam simplesmente com um vencedor e um vencido. O seu fim traça os contornos de um novo mundo.
A Primeira Guerra mundial concluiu com a derrota dos impérios alemão, russo, austro-húngaro e otomano. O fim das hostilidades foi marcada pela instauração elaboração de uma organização internacional, a Sociedade das Nações (SDN) encarregada de abolir a diplomacia secreta e regular por arbitragem os conflitos entre os Estados-membros.
A Segunda Guerra mundial concluiu pela vitória da União Soviética sobre o Reich nazi e o Império nipónico do hakkō ichi’u [1], seguida de uma corrida entre os Aliados para ocupar os despojos da Coligação vencida. Ela deu origem a uma nova estrutura, a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), encarregada de prevenir novas guerras estabelecendo para tal o Direito Internacional em torno de uma dupla legitimidade : —a Assembleia Geral, onde cada Estado dispõe de um voto qualquer que seja o seu tamanho;— e um directório dos cinco principais vencedores, ou seja, o Conselho de Segurança.
A Guerra Fria não foi a Terceira Guerra Mundial. Ela não terminou com a derrota da União Soviética, antes com o seu próprio colapso. Não foi seguida pela criação de novas estruturas, mas, sim pela integração dos Estados da URSS no seio de organizações pré-existentes.
A III Guerra Mundial terá começado na Jugoslávia, terá prosseguido no Afeganistão, no Iraque, na Geórgia, na Líbia e no Iémene, para terminar na Síria. O seu campo de batalha circunscreveu-se aos Balcãs, ao Cáucaso e aquilo que se chama agora o «Médio-Oriente Alargado». Ela terá cobrado a vida a inúmeras populações muçulmanas ou cristãs ortodoxas, sem transbordar muito para o mundo ocidental. Ela está em vias de acabar depois da Cimeira Putin-Trump de Helsínquia.
As profundas transformações que mudaram o mundo durante os últimos 26 anos transferiram uma parte do Poder dos governos para outras entidades, quer administrativas, quer privadas, bem como o contrário. Por exemplo, vimos um exército particular, o Daesh (E.I.), se proclamar como um Estado soberano. Ou ainda, o General David Petraeus organizar o maior tráfico de armas da História quando dirigia a CIA, e prossegui-lo após a sua demissão em nome de uma empresa privada, o fundo especulativo KKR. [2].
Esta situação pode ser descrita como um confronto entre, por um lado, uma classe dirigente transnacional e, por outro, governos responsáveis perante os seus povos.
Contrariamente às imputações da propaganda que atribuem a causa das guerras a circunstâncias imediatas, estas encontram-se em rivalidades, ou ambições, profundas e antigas. Os Estados demoram anos a posicionarem-se uns contra os outros. Muitas vezes, apenas ao fim de bastante tempo é que conseguimos compreender os conflitos que nos devoram.
Por exemplo, muito poucos compreenderam o que se passava durante a invasão japonesa da Manchúria (1931) e esperaram a invasão da Checoslováquia pela Alemanha (1938) para compreender que as ideologias racistas provocavam a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Identicamente, raros foram os que compreenderam, desde a guerra na Bósnia-Herzegovina (1992), que a aliança entre a OTAN e o Islão político abria a via à destruição do mundo muçulmano [3].
Ainda hoje, apesar dos trabalhos de jornalistas e de historiadores, muitos não perceberam a enormidade da manipulação de que nós todos temos sido vítimas. Recusam admitir que a OTAN coordenava então auxiliares sauditas e iranianos em solo do continente europeu. Ora, é um facto (fato-br) impossível de desmentir [4].
Da mesma forma, recusam admitir que a Alcaida, acusada pelos Estados Unidos de ter perpetrado os atentados do 11-de-Setembro, acabou a combater sob ordens da OTAN na Líbia e na Síria. No entanto, é um outro facto impossível de desmentir [5].
O plano inicial que previa levantar o mundo muçulmano contra o mundo ortodoxo transformou-se com o decorrer dos eventos. Não houve «guerra de civilizações». O Irão xiita voltou-se contra a OTAN, que ele serviu na Jugoslávia, e aliou-se à Rússia ortodoxa para salvar a Síria multi-confessional.
Devemos abrir os olhos quanto à História e prepararmo-nos para o alvorecer de um novo sistema mundial, onde alguns dos nossos amigos de ontem se tornaram nossos inimigos e vice-versa.
Em Helsínquia, não foram os Estados Unidos que concluíram um acordo com a Federação da Rússia. Foi apenas a Casa Branca. Porque o inimigo comum é um grupo transnacional exercendo um poder sobre os Estados Unidos. Considerando que é ele, e não o Presidente eleito, quem representa os EUA, não hesitou, aliás, em acusar imediatamente o Presidente Trump de traição.
Este grupo transnacional conseguiu fazer-nos crer que as ideologias estão mortas e que a História acabou. Ele apresentou a globalização, quer dizer a dominação anglo-saxónica através da extensão da língua e do modo de vida norte-americano, como a sequência do desenvolvimento de técnicas de transporte e de comunicação. Garantiu-nos que um sistema político único seria ideal para todos os homens : ---a democracia (isto é o «governo do Povo, pelo Povo, para o Povo»)--- e que era possível impô-lo a todos pela força. Finalmente, ele apresentou a liberdade de circulação de pessoas e capitais como a solução para todos os problemas de mão de obra e de investimento.
Estas asserções, que todos nós aceitamos no nosso quotidiano, não resistem, no entanto, a um minuto de reflexão.
Atrás destas mentiras, este grupo transnacional tem erodido sistematicamente o Poder dos Estados e amassado fortunas.
O campo que emerge vitorioso desta longa guerra defende, pelo contrário, a ideia que, para escolher o seu destino, os homens devem se organizar em Nações definidas, seja a partir de uma terra, seja de uma História ou de um projecto comum. Por conseguinte, ele apoia as economias nacionais contra a finança transnacional.
Acabamos de assistir ao Campeonato (Copa-br) do Mundo de futebol. Se a ideologia da globalização tivesse vencido, teríamos de apoiar não apenas nossa equipa nacional, mas também as de outros países em função da sua pertença a estruturas supranacionais comuns. Por exemplo, os Belgas e os Franceses teriam de se apoiar mutuamente agitando bandeiras da União Europeia. Ora, isso não ocorreu a nenhum dos fãs. Medimos, pois, aqui o fosso que separa, por um lado, a propaganda com que nos espetam e que nós repetimos e, por outro lado, o nosso comportamento espontâneo. Apesar das aparências, a vitória superficial do globalismo não mudou aquilo que somos.
Não é evidentemente por um acaso que a Síria, onde foi imaginada e moldada a ideia de Estado, há vários milhares de anos, é a terra onde esta guerra se concluí. Foi por ter um verdadeiro Estado, que jamais deixou de funcionar, que a Síria, o seu povo, o seu exército e o seu Presidente foram capazes de resistir ao ataque da mais gigantesca coligação da História, composta por 114 Estados membros das Nações Unidas.
[1] Le hakkō ichi’u (“os oito cantos do mundo sob um único tecto”) é a ideologia do Império japonês. Ela impõe a superioridade da raça nipónica e o seu direito a dominar a Ásia.
[2] “Milhares de milhões de dólares de armas contra a Síria”, Thierry Meyssan, Tradução Alva, Rede Voltaire, 18 de Julho de 2017.
[3Les Dollars de la terreur : Les États-Unis et les islamistes, Richard Labévière, Grasset, 1999.
[4Wie der Dschihad nach Europa kam. Gotteskrieger und Geheimdienste auf dem Balkan («Como a Jiade chegou à Europa. Guerreiros de Deus e Serviços de Inteligência nos Balcãs»- ndT), Jürgen Elsässer, Kai Homilius Verlag, 2006. Version française : Comment le Djihad est arrivé en Europe (préface de Jean-Pierre Chevènement), Xenia, 2006.
[5Sous nos yeux. Du 11-septembre à Donald Trump («Sob os Nossos Olhos. Do 11 de Setembro a Donald Trump»- ndT), Thierry Meyssan, Demi-Lune 2017.
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Wednesday, August 1, 2018

MUST READ AND SHARE -- The United States Is The Largest Prison Camp In The World

The United States Is The Largest Prison Camp In The World
The United States Is The Largest Prison Camp In The World
The Criminal  Justice (sic) System
The United States has the highest incarceration rates in the world. The US not only has a far higher percentage of its population in prison than allegedly “authoritarian” governments, but also has a larger total number of citizens imprisoned than China, a country with four times the US poplulation. The US is by far the largest prison camp in the world.
The conditions, such as solitary confinement, in which many US prisoners are kept are strictly illegal under international law, but that means nothing to “freedom and democracy America.” Solitary confinement, especially confinement inside tiny cells, is like being buried alive. Yet, “freedom and democracy America” is subjecting more than 100,000 citizens to this horror as I write. We hear so much about “America’s moral conscience,” but where is this conscience?
Other prisoners are used as a cheap work force for US military and consumer industries. Prison labor and the privatization of prisons have created an enormous demand for prisoners. American citizens are shoveled into the profit-making prison system regardless of innocence or guilt.
There is no doubt that a large percentage of US prisoners are innocent or imprisoned for victimless crimes, such as drug use. According to official US government statistics, 97 percent of all felonies are settled with plea bargains. Consequently, the police evidence and prosecutor’s case is never tested in court. Not even the innocent want a trial, because the jurors are brainwashed and biased against everyone charged, and the punishments that result from trial conviction are much harsher than those given to a compliant defendant who agrees to a plea bargain. Despite the US Constitution’s prohibition of self-incrimination, the US prison population consists of people coerced into self-incrimination. There is no justice whatsoever in the US criminal justice (sic) system. See
“Law and order conservatives” have fantasy ideas about US prisoners lounging around watching TV all day, playing sports in the open air, and studying in prison libraries for law degrees—a life of leisure at public expense. Soren Korsgaard, editor of a crime journal, tells us what life inside an American prison is really like.
Paul Craig Roberts

The United States Criminal Justice System Violates Human Rights
Søren Korsgaard
The US criminal justice system has a long history, continuing to this day, of systematically violating prisoners’ human rights and, hence, international law. Although it has moved away from executions of those who committed their crimes as minors, the justice system still condones wrongful executions as evidenced by a study from 2014, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in which it was concluded, conservatively, that at least 1 in 25 of US death row inmates is innocent of the crime for which they were sentenced to death. Even though this figure, along with facts related to dubious executions, are readily available for public consumption, a massive 55-60% of the US population still supports the death penalty.
Considering that such polls are conducted, it is safe to say that most have given the death penalty some thought; however, the conditions of US prisons are evidently a rare topic of reflection or conversation, except that most informed citizens are, at least, somewhat acquainted with the practices associated with the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and other so-called ‘black sites.’ These practices, of course, include detention without charge or trial, various methods of torture, isolation, and indefinite imprisonment of minors in flagrant violation of international law. What is less known is that equally criminal human rights abuses take place in US maximum security facilities, so-called supermax prisons, and it is therefore essential that the conditions of these are put into the spotlight. In fact, as will be shown in this article, these supermax prisons have been specifically built for torture in the form of prolonged solitary confinement, which goes by many names including isolation, administrative segregation, management control units, protective custody, restrictive housing, and special needs units.
What is solitary confinement? It is typically defined as the physical and social isolation of individuals who are confined to their cells for 22 to 24 hours per day. According to a detailed report by Amnesty International, the US “stands virtually alone in the world in incarcerating thousands of prisoners in long-term or indefinite solitary confinement,” as more than 40 states operate supermax facilities, collectively housing over 25,000 inmates that are kept in near-constant solitary confinement. In other prisons, an additional 80,000 inmates are at any time kept in isolation for variable periods. Solitary confinement has become the first resort in many prisons, and it has been shown that even absurdities can lead to years in isolation. For example, men and women have been placed in isolation for “months or years not only for violent acts but for possessing contraband, testing positive for drug use, ignoring orders, or using profanity ….. or report rape or abuse by prison officials.” Perhaps the most absurd example concerns a group of Rastafarian men who were placed in solitary confinement, some for more than a decade, for refusing to cut their hair as it was fundamental to their faith.
The international community has for a long time discouraged nations from using solitary confinement. For example, when UN’s Special Rapporteur on torture and other inhuman punishment, Juan E. Méndez, delivered his report before the UN’s General Assembly about solitary confinement, he absolutely condemned the use of prolonged isolation and equated it with torture. He added that it should only be used under “exceptional circumstances, for as short a time as possible.” After citing various scientific studies, which showed that “lasting mental damage” can result from even a “few days of social isolation,” he stated that “indefinite and prolonged solitary confinement” should be absolutely prohibited. Méndez also urged nations to end the practice of solitary confinement in pre-trial detention. Méndez’s recommendations were later codified in the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners, known as the “Mandela Rules.”
Extremely harsh sentences and absurdities leading to isolation have also not gone unnoticed by the UN, especially in the context of underage offenders. Among others, Méndez has scolded the US for “being the only country in the world that continues to sentence children to life in prison without parole,” a practice which violates international law as it is considered a “cruel and inhumane punishment” in accordance with article 37(a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which states that “no child [below 18 years of age] shall be subjected to … capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release ….”
During the production of the report on torture and isolation, US officials had openly opposed Méndez’s investigation by restricting his access to prisons and various types of documentation; for example, the number of prisoners in solitary confinement is an estimate as such documentation is not available to the public or even the UN. ADX, a supermax, was one of the prisons that US authorities did not want Mendez to inspect and scrutinize. It is located in Florence, Colorado, and has gained a notorious reputation, even internationally, and it is guarded by secrecy and censorship. The former warden has described it as a “clean version of hell,” and that “it’s far much worse than death.”
Pursuant to Amnesty International’s report, “Entombed: Isolation in the US Federal Prison System,” the vast majority of ADX prisoners are kept in their cells for 22-24 hours per day “in conditions of severe physical and social isolation.” The designers of ADX (as well as other supermax prisons) had that specific purpose in mind as thick steel-reinforced concrete walls prevent inmates from having contact with those in adjacent cells, and “most cells have an interior barred door as well as a solid outer door, compounding the sense of isolation.” When prisoners are not confined to their cells for 24 hours per day due to understaffing and other issues, they can leave their cells for a few hours per week to “exercise” in a “bare interior room or in small individual yards or cages, with no view of the natural world.” Cells are equipped with a shower and toilet, minimizing the need for leaving them. The inmates are almost invariably separated from other humans, and even “checks by medical and mental health staff, take place at the cell door and medical and psychiatric consultations are sometimes conducted remotely, through tele-conferencing.”
It is no surprise that under these conditions, suicide attempts, self-mutilations, and acute psychoses are rampant among the inmates. Amnesty International concludes that “the conditions of isolation at ADX breach international standards for humane treatment and, especially when applied for a prolonged period or indefinitely, amount to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in violation of international law.”
According to the official policy of the Bureau of Prisons, mentally ill inmates are not kept in isolation. It has, however, been profusely documented that inmates with serious psychiatric disorders are kept in isolation and many inmates with no diagnosis have become seriously mentally deranged. Many of these instances have been detailed in various lawsuits. In one lawsuit against ADX, it was detailed that many inmates “suffer from chronic mental illness and some routinely smear themselves and their cells with their own [feces], howl or shriek continuously or bang their metal showers at all hours of the day or night.” This lawsuit also detailed several specific instances of inmates deteriorating mentally during solitary confinement at ADX, one of whom was John Powers. He was originally placed in the Control Unit (the most isolated part of ADX) to serve a 60-month sentence, but he was frequently transferred to the federal medical facility at Springfield after numerous incidents of self-mutilation. Upon being ‘stabilized’ with various pharmaceuticals, he was promptly returned to the CU at ADX. His medical records showed that he had lacerated his scrotum, bit off his finger, inserted staples into his forehead, and slashed his wrists. Originally, he was ordered to serve 60 months in the Control Unit, but because he did not comply with the behavioral requirements, he spent an unfathomable ten years and five months in that unit before finally being transferred to the lesser restricted General Population Unit (GPU). In the GPU, officials continued to deprive him of mental health care, and subsequently he sliced off his earlobes, sawed through his Achilles tendon, and mutilated his genitals. In 2013, he was transferred to another high-security facility and reportedly “rammed his head into an exposed piece of metal in his cell, causing a skull fracture and brain injury …. [later he was found inserting] metal into his brain cavity through the hole that remain[ed] in his skull.”
The psychological effects of solitary confinement have been well-known for decades and are not even controversial; for instance, in the early 1990s, Dr. Stuart Grassian conducted extensive interviews with people held in restricted housing in the Pelican Bay State Prison, the only supermax in California. Dr. Grassian discovered that solitary confinement “induces a psychiatric disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to external stimuli, hallucinations, panic attacks, cognitive deficits, obsessive thinking, paranoia, and a litany of other physical and psychological problems. Psychological assessments of men in solitary at Pelican Bay indicated high rates of anxiety, nervousness, obsessive ruminations, anger, violent fantasies, nightmares, trouble sleeping, as well as dizziness, perspiring hands, and heart palpitations.” Considering the humanitarian aspects and that prolonged solitary confinement is a breach of international law, it is striking that the US continues to enforce it upon its convicts as well as those awaiting trial. It appears that inmates are perceived as objects that need to be dealt with in the most efficient way possible for prison staff regardless of international regulations and recommendations.
Søren Korsgaard, author of America’s Jack the Ripper: The Crimes and Psychology of the Zodiac Killer, is the editor-in-chief of Radians & Inches: The Journal of Crime. He may be contacted via



Um auto retrato surpreendentemente sincero do Presidente da Rússia, Vladimir Putin



Personagens Principais em 'Na Primeira Pessoa'

Parte Um: O Filho

Parte Dois: O Estudante

Parte Três: O Estudante Universitário

Parte Quatro: O Jovem especialista

Parte Cinco: O Espia

Parte Seis: O Democrata

Parte Sete: O Burocrata

Parte Oito: O Homem de Família

Parte Nove: O Político

Apêndice: A Rússia na Viragem do Milénio




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