PREVIOUS FREE PAGES BLOG

PREVIOUS FREE PAGES BLOG
DIPLOMATIC FREE PAGES - click image

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

The tiny pill fueling Syria’s war and turning fighters into superhuman soldiers

Resultado de imagem para Captagon

The tiny pill fueling Syria’s war and turning fighters into superhuman soldiers

As The Post's Liz Sly recently noted, the war in Syria has become a tangled web of conflict dominated by "al-Qaeda veterans, hardened Iraqi insurgents, Arab jihadist ideologues and Western volunteers."

On the surface, those competing actors are fueled by an overlapping mixture of ideologies and political agendas.

Just below it, experts suspect, they're powered by something else: Captagon.

A tiny, highly addictive pill produced in Syria and widely available across the Middle East, its illegal sale funnels hundreds of millions of dollars back into the war-torn country's black-market economy each year, likely giving militias access to new arms, fighters and the ability to keep the conflict boiling, according to the Guardian.

“Syria is a tremendous problem in that it’s a collapsed security sector, because of its porous borders, because of the presence of so many criminal elements and organized networks,” the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC) regional representative, Masood Karimipour, told Voice of America. “There’s a great deal of trafficking being done of all sorts of illicit goods — guns, drugs, money, people. But what is being manufactured there and who is doing the manufacturing, that’s not something we have visibility into from a distance.”

A powerful amphetamine tablet based on the original synthetic drug known as "fenethylline," Captagon quickly produces an euphoric intensity in users, allowing Syria's fighters to stay up for days, killing with a numb, reckless abandon.

"You can't sleep or even close your eyes, forget about it," said a Lebanese user, one of three who appeared on camera without their names for a BBC Arabic documentary that aired in September. "And whatever you take to stop it, nothing can stop it."

"I felt like I own the world high," another user said. "Like I have power nobody has. A really nice feeling."
"There was no fear anymore after I took Captagon," a third man added.

According to a Reuters report published in 2014, the war has turned Syria into a "major" amphetamines producer -- and consumer.

"Syrian government forces and rebel groups each say the other uses Captagon to endure protracted engagements without sleep, while clinicians say ordinary Syrians are increasingly experimenting with the pills, which sell for between $5 and $20," Reuters reported.

Captagon has been around in the West since the 1960s, when it was given to people suffering from hyperactivity, narcolepsy and depression, according to the Reuters report. By the 1980s, according to Reuters, the drug's addictive power led most countries to ban its use.

The United State classified fenethylline ("commonly known by the trademark name Captagon") as a Schedule I drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act in 1981, according to the National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Still, the drug didn't exactly disappear.

VOA notes that while Westerners have speculated that the drug is being used by Islamic State fighters, the biggest consumer has for years been Saudi Arabia. In 2010, a third of the world's supply — about seven tons — ended up in Saudi Arabia, according to Reuters. VOA estimated that as many as 40,000 to 50,000 Saudis go through drug treatment each year.

“My theory is that Captagon still retains the veneer of medical respectability,” Justin Thomas, an assistant professor of psychology and psychotherapy at the UAE’s Zayed University and author of "Psychological Well-Being in the Gulf States," told VOA in 2010. “It may not be viewed as a drug or narcotic because it is not associated with smoking or injecting.”

Five years later, production of Captagon has taken root in Syria — long a heavily trafficked thoroughfare for drugs journeying from Europe to the Gulf States — and it has begun to blossom.

"The breakdown of state infrastructure, weakening of borders and proliferation of armed groups during the ... battle for control of Syria, has transformed the country from a stopover into a major production site," Reuters reported.

"Production in Lebanon's Bekaa valley – a traditional centre for the drug – fell 90% last year from 2011, with the decline largely attributed to production inside Syria," the Guardian noted.

Cheap and easy to produce using legal materials, the drug can be purchased for less than $20 a tablet and is popular among those Syrian fighters who don't follow strict interpretations of Islamic law, according to the Guardian.

Doctors report that the drug has dangerous side effects, including psychosis and brain damage, according to the BBC.
Ramzi Haddad, a Lebanese psychiatrist, told Reuters that the drug produces the typical effects of a stimulant.

"You're talkative, you don't sleep, you don't eat, you're energetic," he said.
According to the news service:
A drug control officer in the central city of Homs told Reuters he had observed the effects of Captagon on protesters and fighters held for questioning.
"We would beat them, and they wouldn't feel the pain. Many of them would laugh while we were dealing them heavy blows," he said. "We would leave the prisoners for about 48 hours without questioning them while the effects of Captagon wore off, and then interrogation would become easier."
One secular ex-Syrian fighter who spoke to the BBC said the drug is tailor-made for the battlefield because of its ability to give soldiers superhuman energy and courage:
"So the brigade leader came and told us, 'this pill gives you energy, try it,' " he said. "So we took it the first time. We felt physically fit. And if there were 10 people in front of you, you could catch them and kill them. You're awake all the time. You don't have any problems, you don't even think about sleeping, you don't think to leave the checkpoint. It gives you great courage and power. If the leader told you to go break into a military barracks, I will break in with a brave heart and without any feeling of fear at all — you're not even tired."
Another ex-fighter told the BBC that his 350-person brigade took the pill without knowing if it was a drug or medicine for energy.
"Some people became addicted to it and it will damage the addicts," he said. "This is the problem."

No comments:

Post a Comment

PUTIN FRENCH



2017 FSB Meeting - RO from Roberto Petitpas on Vimeo.

BOTH VIDEOS AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH,FRENCH, ROMANIAN, PORTUGUESE

PRESIDENT





Labels

21st Century Wire A BRAMERTON A. Orlov Abayomi Azikiwe ABIZAID ABOGADOS ABOGADOS PROGRESISTAS DE ESPAÑA Acción secreta activism Adam GArrie Ajamu Baraka AL-ASSAD AL-HUSAINI Aleksandar PAVIC alex gorka Alex Lantier Alexander Azadgan ALEXANDER DUGIN ALEXANDER KUZNETSOV Alexandra Bruce Alexandre Artamonov Alexandre Cazes ALEXIS Ambrose Evans-Pritchard an Greenhalgh Ana de Sousa Dias ANA SOUSA DIAS ANASTASOV Anatol Lieven Andre Vltchek ANDREI AKULOV Andrew Griffin Andrew Korybko Andrew P. Napolitano Andrey Afanasyev animals Ann Diener Ann Wright Anna Hunt Anna Von Reitz Anne Speckhard Ph. D. Anne Speckhard PH. D Anti-Media News Desk Antony C. Black aRABIC ARAM MIRZAEI Ariel Noyola Rodríguez Asaf Durakovic Asma Assad ASMOLOV ASSANGE Avelino Rodrigues AVNERY BAKER bankers BAOFU barcelona Barrett Brown Bashar al-Assad Baxter Dmitry BECKER Before it's News BEGLEY BERGER BILL SARDI Binoy Kampmark BOGDANOV Brazilian BRENNAN BRIAN CLOUGHLEY BULGARIAN BUTLER By Jack Heart & Orage CABRAS Captagon Carey Wedler CAROL ADL CARTALUCCI Catherine Austin Fitts CATHY O'BRIEN cats Chelsea Manning Choice and Truth Chossudovsky Chris Cole CHRIS HEDGES Christopher Black CIA Claire Bernish clinton Collective Evolution Comunidad Saker Latinoamérica COOK Covert Action Craig McKee CUNNINGHAM CURENT CONCERNS CURRENT CONCERNS Daniel Lazare Daniel McCARTHY Daniele Ganser DANSK Darius Shahtahmasebi DARK JOURNALIST DARK JOURNALISTt DAVID HOROVITZ David Lemire David STERN David Swanson DEAN Deena Stryker Denali Deutsch DINNUCI DIPLOMACY Dmisa Malaroat DMITRIY SEDOV Dmitry Minin Domenico Losurdo Donald Trump doni DONINEWS Dr. Kevin Barrett DUFF DUGIN EDITOR'S CHOICE EDWARD SNOWDEN El Periodico Eliason ELISABETE LUIS FIALHO Eliseo Bertolasi EMMONS endgahl ENGDAHL Eric S. Margolis Eric Zuesse ESCOBAR EUROPE Evan at Fight for the Future F. William Engdahl FANG Farage farewell address FEDERICO PIERACCINI FERRIS Field McConnell finance Finian Cunningham FORBIDDEN KNOWLEDGE TV forbidden nowledge Foster Gamble four horsemen Fr. Andrew Phillips FRANCESCA CHAMBERS Francesco Colafemmina Freeman FRENCH FRISK FULFORD Fuller G20 G20 SUMMIT GALLAGHER Gareth Porter GARY NORTH General Flynn George Gallanis GERMAN GERMANOS Gilad Atzmon Gilbert Doctorow Glenn Greenwald GLOBAL RESEARCH global warming GORDON GORDON DUFF Graham E. Fuller Graham Vanbergen GREENHALGH GREENWALD Greg Hunter Gregory Copley GRETE MAUTNER GUEST CONTRIBUTORS GUNNAR GUTERRES HAGOPIAN Hakan Karakurt Herbert McMaster HERMAN HERNÂNI CARVALHO hill HILLARY CLINTON hollywood http://www.independent.co.uk/ http://www.northcrane.com/ http://www.salem-news.com/ http://yournewswire.com/ HUDON HUDSON ideeCondividi INAUGURATION INCÊNDIOS Inform Clear House Internet IODINE Isaac Davis ITULAIN Ivan Blot JALIFE-RAHME JAMES James Comey JAMES CORBETT JAMES GEORGE JATRAS James ONeil JAMES PETRAS Jane Grey Jay Greenberg Jean Perier Jean Périer Jean-Claude Paye JEFFREY SMITH JEZEBEL JILL STEIN Jim W. Dean Joachim Hagopian john McCain JOHN PILGER John Podesta John W. Whitehead JONAS E. ALEXIS Jonathan Marshall JONES Joseph Thomas JULIAN ASSANGE KADI Kadir A. Mohmand Kadyrov kalee brown Karen Kwiatkowski Karine Bechet-Golovko KATEHON KATHEON Katherine Frisk Ken O’Keefe Kenneth P. VOGEL KERRY BOLTON Kerry Cassidy Kerry Picket Kevin Barret. VT Kim Petersen KIMBERLEY KINZER KIRYANOV KOENIG Konstantin Asmolov KORYBKO KORZUN Krum Velkov Larry Chin Laurent Gerra lavr LAVROV LE PARISIEN Le Saker Francophone LENDMAN Lionel Shriver LOFGREN LVOV MACMILLAN macron Makia Freeman Manlio Dinucci Manlio Dinucci - Manuel Ochsenreiter Marco Cassiano MARCUS WEISGERBER MARGARET KIMBERLEY MARIA ZAKHAROVA Mark Citadel Mark Taliano Markus Frohnmaier Martin Berger Martin Hurkes MARUSEK Matt Agorist Matt Peppe MATTEO rRENZI MATTHEW COLE MATTHEW JAMISON MCLAUGHLIN MÉLENCHON MELKULANGARA BHADRAKUMAR MERCOURIS MEYSSAN MICHAEL AVERKO Michael Brenner Michael Hudson MICHAEL JABARA CARLEY Michael S. Rozeff Michael T. Klare Middle East MIG video mike harris Mike Whitney MINA Mint Press News MintPressNews MIRANDA Misión Verdad MKULTRA Mohamed Mokhtar Qandiel MOHMAND Montenegro MOON OF ALABAMA moonofalabama MOST DAMAGING WIKILEAKS NATO NEO NEWS DESK Nicholas Nicholaides Nick Turse NIKANDROV Nile Bowie NISSANI NORMAN SOLOMON NOVOROSSIA novorussia NYTIMES obama obamas Oliver Stone Olivier Renault ONU ORLOV OSCAR FORTIN PALESTINE PARRY Patrick Iber Patrick J. Buchanan Patrick Martin PAUL CRAIG ROBERTS Paul Fitzgerald Paul R. PILLAR Paul Street PAYE PCR Pedro Bustamante pedrógão grande PEPE ESCOBAR Peter Dale Scot Peter Dale Scott Peter Koenig PETER KORZUN PETRAS Ph.D Phil Butler PICCARD Pierre Farge PILGER PISKORSKI PODESTA Pope Francis PORTUGUESE PRAVDA prc PRESTON JAMES Prof Michel Chossudovsky Prof Rodrigue Tremblay Project Veritas PUTIN PUTIN/TRUMP Putin/Trump meeting PYOTR ISKENDEROV Queen Elizabeth Rajan Menon Raphaël Meyssan rebecca gordon Redmayne-Titley RELAX réseau Réseau International Réseau Voltaire Réseau Voltaire: Revue Défense Nationale Ricardo Vaz RICHARD DOLAN Richard Galustian Richard Labévière Richard Spencer Rick Sterling Rob Urie Robert Bridge Robert F. Kennedy Jr Robert J. Burrowes Robert J. O’Dowd Robert O’Dowd ROBERT PARRY robert steele ROBERTS rof. Mohssen Massarrat ROLAND Roland San Juan blog ROMANIA PROTESTS ROMANIAN Ron Aledo RON PAUL Ron Paul Institute RT Rudolph Giuliani RUDY GIULIANI Russia feed RUSSIA TODAY RUSSIAN Russian Insider Russie politics Russka RUSSOPHILE Ryan Dawson Ryan Gallagher Salman Rafi Sheikh sana sanders SANTOS SILVA Sarah Abed SCAHILL SCOTT Scott Humor Sean Adl-Tabatabai SERGEY LAVROV sessions Seth Ferris SETH RICH SHAKDAM Shawn Hamilton SHEIKH sic notícias SIMON PARKES Smith & Wesson SNOWDEN SNYDER Sophie & Co Soros SOUTH FRONT SOUTHFRONT SPANISH speech GERMAN MP Speer-Williams Sputinik sPUTNICK SPUTNIK STACHNIO State of the Nation STEPHEN KARGANOVIC Stephen Kinzer Stephen Lendman Steve Pieczenik STEVE PIECZENIK: Steven MacMillan STONE STORM CLOUDS GATHERING StormCloudsGathering.com Strategic Culture STRATTON STRYKER Sunagawa Syria TAKEHON TALIANO TASS TEREHOV The Anti-Media The Duran THE INTERCEPT THE SAKER the true activist THERAPEOFJUSTICE Thierry Meyssan Third Presidential Debate Tillerson tom dispatch TOM ELEY Tom Engelhardt Tom Feeley TOM JOAD TomDispatch TOMGRAM Tony Cartalucci True Activist TrueActivist.com trump TSUKANOVA TTIP TURKEY TYLER DURDEN Udo Ulfkotte Ukrainian Deserter USA ELECTION USA ELECTIONS Valentin Vasilescu Van AUKEN Vanessa Beeley VASILESCU Vault 7 Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity VETERANS TODAY VETERNAS TODAY Victory Day video videos VIETNAM VETERANS Viktor Mikhin VITALY CHURKIN Vladimir Chizhov Vladimir Safronkov Vladimir Terehov VLTCHEK VT Waking Times WANTA Washingtons blog WAYNE MADSEN WESTBERG Westmoreland WHITEHEAD Whitney Webb WIKILEAKS Wikispooks William Blum WOODS world cup 2018 Xi Jinping Yameen Khan Yanis Varoufakis YEMEN Youssef A. Khaddour ZAKHAROVA ZÉ GERALDO ZEROHEDGE ZUESSE